Marfan Syndrome編輯

  1. long, thin extremities
  2. ectopia lentis
  3. aortic aneurysm

Apart's Syndrome編輯

  • Acrocephalosyndactyly
  • 頭, 臉, 手畸形

  • Ollier's disease: multiple enchondroma, enchondromatosis
  • Maffucci's syndrome: Ollier's disease + hemangioma
  • Monteggia's fracture: 近端 1/3 ulna fr. + radial head dislocation
  • Galeazzi's fracture: 遠端 radius fr. + radioulnar joint dislocation
  • Colles' fracture: 遠端 radius fr., dinner-fork deformity
  • Smith's fracture: reverse Colles' fracture, garden-spade

Cervical myelopathy編輯

  1. Hoffmann's sign: 捏中指
  2. Inverted radial reflex: 敲手腕, 往下抓
  3. Grip and release test: 手快速握放

Cervical radiculopathy編輯

  1. Spurling test (+): 頭轉, 壓頭
  2. Finger escape sign: 手伸直,小指下垂

Rotator cuff編輯

  1. Supraspinatus
  2. Subscapularis
  3. Infraspinatus
  4. Teres minora

Ant. Glenohumoral Joint Dislocation編輯

  1. Bankart lesion: Labrum 撕裂
  2. Hill-Sachs defect: humoral head 凹陷

Throwing elbow編輯

  1. Children: lat. side - Osteochodritis dissecans
  2. Adult: med. side - MCL injury

Osteoporotic fractures編輯

  1. Vertebral compression fracture
  2. Proximal femur
  3. Proximal humerus
  4. Distal radius
  5. Rib fracture

Paget's disaese編輯

  1. 快速的 bone remodeling 導致結構異常, but mineralization is normal
  2. 50~60 y/o
  3. Low back pain, hearing loss, 骨頭變形

  • Blount's disease: 單側O型腿
  • Fibrous dysplasia: Shepherd's crook deformity, 不會長到epiphysis
  • Albright syndrome: precocious puberty + cafe au lait spot + fibrous dysplasia in female
  • Gaucher's disease: 燒杯的形狀
  • Charcot's joint: painless joint deformity
  • Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS): 慢性synovitis -> 出血 -> synovium 不正常增生
  • Osteoid osteoma: benign, small, woven bone, 年輕男, night pain, nidus要移除
  • Osteoblastoma: benign, large OO, 年輕男, vetebral body
  • Osteosarcoma: malignant, 年輕男, knee, metaphysis, Codman's triangle, sun-burst
  • Osteochondroma: benign, exostosis, 年輕男, long bone metaphysis, multiple -> malignancy, en-bloc extracapsule excision
  • Chondroma: benign, small tubular bone, 生長緩慢, 周圍 no reactive bone, in pelvis -> malignancy
  • Chondroblastoma: benign, 年輕男, epiphysis

會侵犯 epiphysis 的 tumor編輯

  1. Giant cell tumor
  2. Chondroblastoma
  3. Clear cell chondrosarcoma

  • Chondromyxoid fibroma: benign, 黏液、纖維、軟骨, 年輕男, proximal tibia
  • Chondrosarcoma: malignant, 慢, 難診斷
  • Ossifying fibroma: == osteofibrous dysplasia, 女童, tibia
  • Ewing's sarcoma: malignant, 男童, pelvis, 快, fever, onion skin like, Codman's triangle
  • Giant cell tumor: benign, epiphysis, knee, 30 y/o, bubble-soap, eccentric
  • Aneurysm bone cyst: like giant cell tumor, but centric, 年輕男, metaphysis of long bone and vertebra
  • Chordoma: >30男, spine兩端, constipation